来源:百度文库 编辑:神马慧海网 时间:2020/01/24 11:03:05


Before the Qin Dynasty (221-207BC), traditional values from the Zhou Dynasty gradually collapsed, with different regimes and different thoughts flourishing throughout China. According to official records of the Han Dynasty, there are as many as 189 differentschools of thoughts at the time, making that period the pinnacle of Chinese philosophy. Scholars in the Han Dynasty summed up the pre-Qin philosophy in "nine genres and 10 schools."秦(公元前221—207)以前,周朝以来的传统价值观逐渐崩溃,思想界呈现百家争鸣的局面。根据汉代官方记载,当时各种思想流派多达189种,是中国哲学的一个巅峰时期。汉代学者将先秦哲学总结为“九流十家”(小编注:十家即:儒、道、阴阳、法、名、墨、纵横、杂、农、小说家;十家中小说家属于艺文,除去不算,称为九流。)

At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), the notion that "heaven is dead"prevailed; Confucian moral concepts and values waned; and, society experienced majorturbulence. Philosophers at the time used metaphysical discussions on the interrelation between Confucianism and Taoism to explain a number of important topics like the relationship between Confucianism and nature. Theoretical hypotheses wereunprecedented during this time.东汉末年(公元25—220),“上帝已死”的思想(小编注:“上帝之死”是德国哲学家尼采的著名思想。指上帝已经无法成为人类社会道德标准与终极目的。此处用来比喻东汉末年人们已不再笃信传统价值观,信仰体系的底线被突破。)盛行;儒家传统价值观逐渐消解;社会急剧动荡。当时的哲学家们通过研究形而上学,讨论儒家思想与道家思想的关联,并以此来解释诸如儒家思想与自然的关系等很多重要问题。理论假设的思维方法在这个时期第一次出现了。

From the Tang to the Song Dynasty (960-1279), traditional values suffered from disorder as the Han people blended with other ethnic groups. The contradictions between foreign and indigenous cultures, and official and folk cultures, were more glaring than ever. Facing the contradiction, the Confucian school of idealist philosophers endeavoredto reestablish a spiritual world for the people in the Song Dynasty, with their efforts to integrate Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.唐宋时期,汉人和其他少数民族的融合,引起传统价值观的又一次瓦解。本土文化与外来文化、官方文化和民间文化之间的冲突比以往任何时候都更激烈。面对这种冲突与矛盾,唯心主义哲学家中的儒派为重建人们的精神家园而努力,从而形成了新儒家思想,佛家思想和道家思想。